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74th Annual Summer Conference, August 4–7, 2005

Speaker Biographies


Mulugeta Abai
Executive Director, Canadian Centre for Victims of Torture

The Executive Director of CCVT for over 11 years, Mulugeta has been a leader in the settlement sector, designing and developing innovative programs that support the independence and full participation of survivors of torture and their families in all aspects of Canadian society. With over 20 years of community involvement in the areas of community development, advocacy and anti-racism, Mulugeta also brings a personal commitment to equity. He has extensive experience in management, organizational development, communications and media relations and has worked in the public, private and community sectors.

Mulugeta is a passionate defender of social justice and human rights, not just for refugees and immigrants alone, but for all. Mulugeta is currently the Coordinator of the National Network for the Health of Survivors of Torture and Organized Violence, a board member with Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants and has been a member of the Canadian Council for Refugees Executive. He has joined the 519 Church Community Centre advisory committee. Mr. Mulugeta holds a B.Ed. from Addis Abeba University, BA in Political Science (York University) and a Post-graduate Certificate in Management from Schlitz School of Business.

Brief Information on CCVT Mandate: The Canadian Centre for Victims of torture (CCVT) aids survivors to overcome the lasting effects of torture and war. Working with the community, the centre supports survivors in the process of successful integration into Canadian society, works for their protection and integrity, and raises awareness of the continuing effects of torture and war on survivors and their families. CCVT gives hope after the horror that has deeply affected their lives. The Centre is the second oldest in the world and the first of its kind to be established in North America. CCVT has been in operation for 27 years and has assisted over 15,000 survivors of torture who chose to make Canada their home.



Mary Kathryn Barbier, Assistant Professor, Department of History, Mississippi State University

Kathryn Barbier received her Ph.D. from the University of Southern Mississippi. After teaching as an adjunct professor for a year and a half, she received a two-year postdoctoral fellowship from International Security Studies at Yale University. While at Yale, she attended numerous lectures, conducted research, and taught two junior seminars.

Professor Barbier has produced two popular books: Kursk: the Greatest Tank Battle Ever Fought 1943 (also published in German) and Strategy and Tactics: Infantry Warfare: The Theory and Practice of Infantry Combat in the 20th Century (a collaborative effort with Andrew Wiest). In 2002, she attended a three-week seminar at West Point before starting an appointment at the University of Guelph, where she taught the U.S. history survey and War & Society. Since accepting the position as an Assistant Professor at Mississippi State University, Dr. Barbier has written a brief history of the U.S. Army for fifth graders, published in 2005, and is revising her manuscript, “D-Day Deception: Operation Fortitude and the Normandy Invasion.” She also wrote an article on D-Day planning and deception efforts with Andrew Wiest for a journal called Everyone’s War and has began preliminary work on a short military biography of Field Marshall Bernard Montgomery.



Alan Borovoy, General Counsel of the Canadian Civil Liberties Association

Alan Borovoy holds a Bachelor of Arts (1953) and a Bachelor of Laws (1956) from the University of Toronto. He was admitted to the Bar of Ontario at Osgoode Hall, Toronto, in 1958. Among many of Mr. Borovoy’s community organizing activities are a delegation to the Ontario Government, which culminated in legislation against racial discrimination in housing, a march by more than 400 aboriginal people in Kenora, Ontario, which culminated in government compliance with every proposal in the aboriginal brief, and a delegation to the Ontario Minister of Health, which culminated in tighter standards and procedures in the mental health laws dealing with involuntary civil commitment. He has also organized delegations to the federal and provincial governments on capital punishment, religious education in the public schools, the War Measures Act, custodial access to counsel, national security and intelligence, and welfare practices. Mr. Borovoy formed a public rally protesting the Fort Erie search and strip drug raid, which culminated in the establishment of a royal commission, and public protest meetings against a special Alberta statute abolishing native caveat claims, the return of capital punishment, a federal pornography bill, and the excesses of the federal bill creating CSIS.

Mr. Borovoy has made public presentations on wiretapping, prisoners’ rights, racial discrimination, poverty, mail opening, immigration, involuntary civil commitment, the Official Secrets Act, freedom of information, legal aid, confidentiality of health information, and national security. He has also supervised research projects on the issues of racial discrimination among employment and real estate agencies, the shortage of non-whites in certain government services and managerial positions, the under-employment of native people in Northern Ontario banks, prisoners’ lack of access to lawyers, and the powers of welfare administrators and the safeguards for welfare recipients.

Mr. Borovoy’s publications include three books: When Freedoms Collide, 1988, which was nominated for the Governor General’s Award for non-fiction, Uncivil Obedience – The Tactics and Tales of a Democratic Agitator, 1991, and The New Anti-Liberals, 1999. From 1992–96 he wrote fortnightly columns for The Toronto Star, and also wrote articles in many newspapers including The Globe and Mail, The Toronto Star, The National Post, the Calgary Herald, and the Ottawa Citizen. Mr. Borovoy has written articles for the Canadian magazine, the Saturday Night magazine, the Canadian Bar Review, and several essays for books on civil liberties and the practice of freedom in Canada.

Mr. Borovoy taught as a part-time lecturer at the Dalhousie Law School in Halifax, NS, the Faculty of Social Work and the Faculty of Law at the University of Toronto, the Faculty of Law at the University of Windsor, the Political Science Department and the Department of Canadian Studies at Glendon College, York University, and for several years ran the Community Education Program at York University, “The Law and You” series.

Mr. Borovoy won the Award of Merit from the City of Toronto, an Honorary Doctor of Laws from Queen’s University in 1982, from York University in 1988, from the University of Toronto in 1991, and from the Law Society of Upper Canada in 1995. He received the Officer of the Order of Canada Award in 1982, the Goodman Lecturer Award from the Faculty of Law, University of Toronto in 1987, and the Law Society Medal from the Law Society of Upper Canada in 1989. Mr. Borovoy also inscribed in the Honour Roll of the Aboriginal People of Treaty Number 3, and won the Human Rights Award from The Lord Reading Law Society of Quebec.



Dr. Peter Bradley
Associate Chair of War Studies at the Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON

A former military man, Dr. Bradley served for 33 years in the Canadian Forces, the first 12 years as an infantry officer and the following 21 years as a personnel selection officer. During his time in the infantry, he served on two 6-month tours with the United Nations in Cyprus (1973-74) and was a member of the Canadian Airborne Regiment for three years from 1974 to 1977.

Dr. Bradley completed his graduate studies in psychology at the University of Western Ontario. For the past eight years, he has been teaching courses in military psychology, ethics and leadership at the Royal Military College of Canada.



Irus Braverman, S.J.D. (Doctorate) in Law, University of Toronto (first year), 2004–05, and Visiting Fellow, Human Rights Program, Harvard University, Fall 2005

Irus Braverman received her LL.B. from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem Faculty of Law, Israel, in 1995 and was admitted to practice as a member of the Israeli Bar Association the following year. She received her M.A. in Criminology from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Law, Israel, in 2004 and her S.J.D. (Doctorate) in Law from the University of Toronto that same year. She is also a Fellow of the Human Rights Program at Harvard University’s Faculty of Law. From 1994–96 Irus Braverman worked as a legal intern for the Association for Civil Rights in Israel, a non-profit organization in Jerusalem. She then worked as a state prosecuter for the Jerusalem District Attorney’s Office from 1995–97. Then, from 1997–98, Irus Braveman held an attorney position for the Israeli Union for Environmental Defense, in Tel-Aviv. At the Shatil Empowerment and Training Center for Non-Profit Social Change in Israel, Braverman was Director of Religious Pluralism Program from 2000–01. The same year she worked as Executive Director for Mavoi-Satum, a women’s non-profit organization in Jerusalem and from 2002–03, Braverman was an Associate at the Ophir Katz & Co., Law Firm.

Irus Braverman is the author of Religions in Jerusalem, published by the IDF Education Unit in 1988, and has done volunteer work as a human rights activist in a Tibetan refugee camp, in India in 1997 and in Chiapas, Mexico in 1999. Irus Braverman was a conflict facilitator of Jewish-Palestinian groups for Jewish-Arab villages in Israel in 1998, and the Co-Leader of Checkpoint-Watch, a women’s non-profit organization monitoring Israeli soldiers in occupied territories.

Irus Braverman is the recipient of the Critical Community Leadership Fellowship Award initiated by the New Israel Fund in 1998, the Gilo Center for Citizenship, Democracy and Civic Education Scholarship from the University of Jerusalem in 2003, and the Herman Good Award from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem that same year. Braverman won the Yad Ora Award for Geopolitical Studies from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 2004, and the Tami Steinmatz Peace Award from the Tel Aviv University in 2004. She is also the recipient of the Connaught Award from the University of Toronto in 2004–06, and from the Association for American University Women in 2004. Finally, she was given an Ontario Government Scholarship for 2005–06.



Nancy Gordon
Deputy Executive Director and Senior Vice-President, 1995–present
CARE Canada, Ottawa, Canada

Nancy Gordon is the Senior Vice-President at CARE Canada. She has administrative responsibility for the management and direction of the organization that includes a headquarters staff of 60 and an overseas component of 70. Since April 1993, when she began working at CARE, Ms. Gordon has held various positions, including Director of Communications, and Marketing Unit Leader. From 1985 until its closure in 1992, she was the Director of Public Programmes at the Canadian Institute for International Peace and Security (CIIPS).

Ms. Gordon was educated at Queen’s University in Kingston, and joined the Department of External Affairs as a Foreign Service Officer in 1963. She taught Political Science at Brandon University, and served as Executive Director and Information Officer with the United Nations Association in Canada. In 2002, she was elected National President of the United Nations Association in Canada.



Paul Heinbecker

Paul Heinbecker is the inaugural director of the Centre for Global Relations, Governance and Policy at Wilfrid Laurier University and Senior Research Fellow at the independent research Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) in Waterloo.

These appointments follow a distinguished career with the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs.

Mr. Heinbecker joined the Department of External Affairs in 1965, with postings abroad in Ankara and Stockholm, and in Paris with the Permanent Delegation of Canada to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. In Ottawa, Mr. Heinbecker served, inter alia, as Director of the United States General Relations Division and as Chairman of the Policy Development Secretariat in External Affairs. From 1985 to 1989, he was Minister in Washington.

From 1989 to 1992, Mr. Heinbecker served as Prime Minister Mulroney’s Chief Foreign Policy Advisor and speech writer and as Assistant Secretary to the Cabinet for Foreign and Defence Policy.

In 1992, he was named Ambassador to Germany, where inter alia he promoted German investment in Canada. In 1996, he was appointed Assistant Deputy Minister, Global and Security Policy, and Political Director in the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Mr. Heinbecker led the interdepartmental task force on Kosovo and helped to negotiate the end of that war. He was also head of the delegation for the negotiation of the Climate Change Convention in Kyoto.

In the summer of 2000, Mr. Heinbecker was appointed Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Canada to the United Nations, where he was a leading advocate for the creation of the International Criminal Court and a proponent of compromise on Iraq.

Mr. Heinbecker received his Bachelor of Arts Degree (Honours) from Waterloo Lutheran University in 1965, and an Honorary Doctorate of Law from the same institution in 1993. He was Alumnus of the Year at WLU in 2003.



Craig Jenness
Former Head of the OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe) Mission to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (Skopje) (2001–03), and currently serving as the Senior Advisor to the Special Representative of the Secretary General, United Nations Mission in Kosovo

Craig Jenness, a laywer, has also served as Deputy Head of the OSCE Mission in Kosovo (1999–2000), and Deputy Head of the OSCE Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina (1996–99). His posts at the UN have also included serving United Nations Peacekeeping Missions in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNPROFOR) (1994–95) and Cambodia (UNTAC) (1993–94). More recently he was Head of OSCE Election Observation Mission to Georgia (December 2003 to January 2004), and Head of International Organization for Migration Out of Country Voting Programme, Iran–Afghan Elections (May–October, 2004).



Major-General Andrew B. Leslie, OMM, MSM, CD

MGen Andrew Leslie was born December 1957. His initial schooling was conducted in Canada, the USA, France, Cyprus, and Switzerland. His family has a tradition of military service and he joined the Army Reserves in 1977 (30th Field Artillery Regiment) while at Ottawa University. While in London, England as a graduate student he was attached to the Honorable Artillery Company. In 1980 he attended the International Peace Academy UN Staff Seminar in Vienna, Austria. In 1981, he transferred to the regular force and served with 1 RCHA in Germany during which he completed the British Army Troop Commanders course, French Army Commando training, the hand to hand combat course, and the combat intelligence course.

After a succession of field tours with mechanized and airborne combat units in Germany, Cyprus and Canada and command appointments up to regimental level, in early 1995 he was promoted to Colonel and sent to the Former Yugoslavia as Chief of Staff Sector South (Brigade Level). He was awarded the Meritorious Service Medal for his actions under fire during the fighting for Knin in August 1995. He then became Chief of Staff UNCRO (Division level), and finally Chief of Staff of UNPF (Mission level). Following the UN hand-over to NATO forces, BGen Leslie returned to Western Canada as the Area Chief of Staff in 1996, and served in that capacity during the Manitoba floods of Spring 1997.

In July 1997 he became the Commander of 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group (1CMBG), an infantry-heavy formation, where the focus was on live-fire combined arms training. In early 1998 1CMBG deployed to the South shore of Montreal to assist with ice-storm disaster relief operations, followed by an almost continuous cycle of Battle Group and Brigade exercises. That same year he was awarded the Order of Military Merit. In early 1999, 1CMBG tightened its focus on complex peace support/peacemaking missions in anticipation of a deployment to Kosovo.

His training includes a variety of courses such as the combat team commander's course, Army Staff College and the Canadian Forces Staff College. His education includes degrees in Economics and Military History, including a Masters in War Studies from RMC. Promoted BGen in late 1999, he completed both the Advanced Military Studies and the National Security Studies Courses in Toronto.

In 2000 he became the J6 of the Canadian Forces, responsible for the Groups and Regiments of the communications field force, signals/electronic intelligence, and computer network operations. He was appointed Commander Land Forces Central Area in 2002, where he was responsible for one regular and three reserve Brigade Groups and numerous support formations, training establishments, bases and units. In July 2003, he was appointed Commander of Land Force Doctrine and Training System.

In 2003 he was promoted to his current rank and then appointed Commander, Task Force Kabul and Deputy Commander, International Stabilization Assistance Force in Afghanistan. He returned to Canada from Afghanistan in February 2004, and was appointed acting Assistant Chief of the Land Staff at National Defence Headquarters in Ottawa until September 2004. MGen Leslie is currently pursuing full time studies to obtain a doctorate degree and will take on the duties of Director General Strategic Planning in the summer of 2005.



Major General (ret’d) Lewis MacKenzie, OStJ, OOnt, MSC, CD, and President, General MacKenzie Enterprises Inc.

General Lewis MacKenzie was born in Truro, Nova Scotia, a long time ago. He is a graduate of Xavier Junior College of Sydney, Cape Breton and the University of Manitoba. During his thirty six years of military service in the Infantry he served nine years in Germany with NATO forces and managed to fit in nine peacekeeping tours of duty in six different mission areas – the Gaza Strip, Cyprus, Vietnam, Cairo, Central America and Sarajevo.

In 1990 General MacKenzie was appointed commander of the United Nation’s Observer mission in Central America. Two years later he was assigned to the United Nation’s Protection Force in Yugoslavia. In May of that year he created and assumed command of Sector Sarajevo and with a contingent of soldiers from 31 countries opened the Sarajevo airport for the delivery of humanitarian aid during the height of the Bosnian civil war. As a result he became the only Canadian to be awarded a second Meritorious Service Cross. He retired from the Canadian Forces in 1993.

His personal account of his military experiences, Peacekeeper, Road to Sarajevo, became a number one best seller in 1993. A two-hour television documentary based on the book and hosted by the general was aired internationally and won a New York film festival award in 1997. Since his retirement from the military, General MacKenzie regularly appears on many of the international TV and radio networks as a commentator. He has been under contract to CBS, CTV, CBC and Southam News at various times during the past seven years.

General MacKenzie was made an Honorary Chief of the Metro Toronto Police Force in 1993. He holds Honorary Doctorates from numerous Canadian Universities and is a member of the Board of Advisors of the Canadian Federation of AIDS Research. He was Tourism Canada’s Canadian of the Year in 1992 and he is an alumnus of the Maclean’s Role of Honour. In 2002 he was invested with the Order of Ontario for his humanitarian work in Eastern Africa.

Following the attacks of 11 September 2001, General MacKenzie was appointed one of two advisors to the Government of Ontario on counter-terrorism and emergency measures.



Elizabeth Palmer
News Correspondent, CBS

Elizabeth Palmer has a long and distinguished history as a journalist in print, radio and television for Canadian and American broadcasters, covering war-torn regions and conflicts around the world. She brings an experienced and nuanced perspective on the ethics and realities of the use of physical force in both domestic and international arenas.

Starting her journalism career with a job as a reporter on the Haney Gazette, a tiny newspaper in the Fraser Valley, she eventually joined the BBC and later the CBC. In 1994, she opened the CBC’s Latin American bureau in Mexico City, and in 1997 moved to Moscow to become bureau chief and senior correspondent in Moscow for the CBC. In 2001, Elizabeth joined CBS News, covering Moscow before moving to London.

Elizabeth has covered many major international stories and has filed reports from locations including Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Israel and South Africa, among others. Elizabeth covered the U.N. Weapons inspections in Iraq, the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan, the Chechen-hostage crisis in Moscow, the Chiapas Indian uprising in Mexico, the Palestinian intifada in the West Bank and Gaza – to name a few. She was one of the first Western journalists reporting from Northern Iraq in 2001 and was the first to interview Afghani leader Hamid Karzai after the assassination of his vice president. For the past four years, Elizabeth has traveled regularly in and out of Afghanistan and Iraq and in November of 2004 was embedded with the U.S. Marines for the battle of Fallujah.

She has just won two major American journalism prizes for her reporting from Beslan, North Ossetia (Russia) in September of 2004, the site of the terrorist school seige: the Edward R. Murrow Award and the Sigma Delta Chi award from the American Society of Professional Journalists.

Elizabeth also held positions as a documentary reporter on science and international affairs (1990–94) and a business reporter (1988–90) for the CBC in Toronto. She hosted CBC Radio’s Olympic coverage from the 1988 Winter and Summer Olympic Games, as well as its most prestigious current affairs programs. She received the 1994 Science Writers of Canada Award for Best Television Documentary and the 1995 New York Television and Radio Award for Best News Feature.



Dr. Debra Pepler
Professor of Psychology, York University, and Psychologist, Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto

Dr. Pepler’s current research examines aggression and victimization among adolescents with a concern to the processes related to these problems over the lifespan. She was honoured for this research with the Contribution to Knowledge Award from the Psychology Foundation of Canada and with the Educator of the Year Award from Phi Delta Kappa, Toronto.

Dr. Pepler also researches children in families at risk. Her clinical work is in the areas of family break up and children with emotional and behavioural problems. She consults to the Girls’ Connection Program, a program for aggressive girls at Earlscourt Child and Family Centre.



Ernie Regehr, Director of Project Ploughshares at the Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies

Ernie Regehr is Director and Co-Founder of Project Ploughshares, and an Adjunct Associate Professor in Peace and Conflict Studies at Conrad Grebel University College. His publications on peace and security issues include books, monographs, journal articles, newspaper and magazine articles, conference papers, working papers, and Parliamentary briefs. He has served as an NGO representative and expert advisor on a number of Government of Canada delegations to multilateral forums, including the just concluded 2005 Review Conference of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the 2001 UN Conference on Small Arms. Among current appointments, he is a Commissioner on the World Council of Churches Commission on International Affairs and on the Board of Directors of the Africa Peace Forum based in Nairobi. In 2003, Mr. Regehr was appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada.



Christine E. Silverberg, M.A., APR, LL.B.
(Chief of Police Ret’d)

Christine Silverberg has been in the public service for 31 years, holding progressively more responsible positions in both policing and government sectors, in both eastern and western Canada. She retired in the fall of 2000, after a five-year term as Chief of the Calgary Police Service, then commenced studies at the University of Calgary Law School. At the same time, she launched a consulting practice advising chief executives and governance authorities on managing important issues facing policing agencies, governments and private sector clients. Ms. Silverberg is now mid-way through her articles at the law firm, Gowling Lafleur Henderson LLP in Calgary.

Ms. Silverberg is a graduate of both Ontario and Canadian Police Colleges, and in addition to her LLB, holds an MA (Criminology) from the University of Toronto, Professional Accreditation in Public Relations (APR) and is a graduate and member of the FBI’s National Executive Institute. Ms. Silverberg has held numerous executive positions on boards and committees and is currently a member of the Ontario, Canadian and International Association of Chiefs of Police, the Washington-based Police Executive Research Forum and the Canadian Bar Association. She is a member of the Board of Directors of the YWCA.

Ms. Silverberg has received many awards for her community work and professional endeavours, including the YWCA Woman of Distinction, Rotary International Paul Harris Fellowship Award and Toastmasters International Award for Communications and Leadership. She was named “Police Chief of the Year” by Blue Line, a national law enforcement publication in 1999, and profiled as “Top Cop” by CBC’s “Life and Times” series. This year, Ms. Silverberg was named one of Canada’s Top 100 Most Powerful Women by the Women’s Executive Network and the Ivey School of Business, University of Western Ontario. Ms. Silverberg is currently an honorary Nigerian and recipient of the Nigerian Canadian Distinguished Service Award, an honorary member of St. Vincent and Grenadines, and holds the aboriginal name ‘Bluebird Lady’ bestowed by the Peigan Nation.

Ms. Silverberg is a visionary and dynamic leader, with a reputation that has brought her recognition in documentaries, and academic and popular books. She is widely respected for her work in culturally and racially diverse communities, her contributions to community policing, and her strategic approaches to public safety and risk management. Ms. Silverberg has consulted to diverse stakeholders nationally and internationally including UNESCO in Paris, France, in the areas of crisis management strategy and crisis communications, and in Brazil in the areas of community policing and organizational strategy.

A particular strength is Ms. Silverberg’s ability to assess an organization’s operating context, analyse the impact of the changing environment, align the organization with these changing demands, and ensure that the systems within the organization are integrated to respond. She has been able to translate thinking into practice, and has repeatedly demonstrated strong skills in negotiation and diplomacy, and an ability to achieve consensus where positions have been polarized.



Mark Taylor
Deputy Managing Director, Fafo Institute for Applied International Studies (Fafo AIS)

Mark Beaumont Taylor is the Deputy Managing Director of the Fafo Institute for Applied International Studies (Fafo AIS), Oslo. Since joining Fafo in 1997, Mark has been working on issues related to international responses to conflict, including the reform of UN peace operations, war economies, peace-building, human rights and conflict resolution initiatives in Haiti, and the Middle East. Between July 1998 and November 2002, he was Programme Director of Fafo’s Programme for International Co-operation and Conflict Resolution, in which capacity he ran the Peace Implementation Network. He is presently editor of the Economies of Conflict series of reports (published by Fafo AIS) examining private sector activity in armed conflict, and will publish a book entitled Conflict Trade in 2006. His research focuses on the economics of armed conflict and violence (conflict trade), and the international policy and practice in response to conflict. His regional focus is the Middle East and Arab World.

Mark’s operational experience has been in security analysis, human rights, and institutional building for the United Nations and non-governmental organisations. He lived in the West Bank and Gaza Strip between 1989 and 1995, where he helped coordinate the Human Rights Action Project at Birzeit University (1989–92), and carried out security and economic analysis for UNRWA in Gaza (1993–94). Mark was Executive Officer for Liaison and Special Projects for the UN Special Co-ordinator (1994–95) in which position he acted as special assistant to the UN Special Co-ordinator, Terje Rød-Larsen. In addition, he has carried out human rights and investigations in the Middle East for Human Rights Watch and economic and security analysis for other non-governmental organisations. Mark has B.A. (honours) from McGill University, Montreal and a LL.M. (cum laude) in Public International Law from Leiden University, The Netherlands.



Dr. Richard Tremblay

Richard Tremblay is professor of pediatrics, psychiatry, and psychology at the University of Montréal, and Canada Research Chair in Child Development. One of his major focuses has been the study of the development and prevention of antisocial behaviour. As director of an interdisciplinary research centre funded by three universities (Laval, McGill and Montréal), his main goal is to integrate genetic, environment, brain and behaviour research to understand the socialization process. With partners from across Canada he has recently been funded by Health Canada to create the Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development.

Professor Tremblay is an advisory board member of the Canadian Institute of Human Development, Child and Youth Health (IHDCYH), and a member of one of the USA National Institute of Health planning committees. As Molson Fellow of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Dr. Tremblay is a member of its Human Development program. He is also a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada.



Dr. Monila Wohlfeld

Dr. Wohlfeld was appointed (promoted) to the position of Deputy Director of the Conflict Prevention Centre (CPC) of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. The CPC is the major operating instrument for a wide range of programming of the OSCE. She is now the 3rd of 4th ranking staff member of the 55 nation body, and the highest ranking woman officer.

The formal description of the CPC is as follows:

Under the guidance of the Secretary General, the CPC provides support for the Chairman-in-Office (the Foreign Minister in the country of the annually rotating Chair) and other OSCE negotiating and decision-making bodies in the fields of early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management, and post-conflict rehabilitation.

To assist in this, it maintains an Operations Centre to identify potential crisis areas and plan for future missions and operations. The Forum for Security and Co-operation (FSC) Support Unit in the Conflict Prevention Centre covers politico-military aspects of security in the OSCE area.

The OSCE has a budget of 190 Million Euro, directly employs 370 in the Secretariat, and supports an international staff of over 1,000 and local staff of 2,000 in over two dozen missions and offices across the OSCE area. Most of the field staff are paid by participating states directly. They have a very active Election Observation programme (ODIHR), and have been active most recently and prominently in Ukraine and Central Asia.